According to data from the Indonesian Cancer Foundation, Cervical Cancer is the number one killer of Indonesian women. According to the Chairman of the Indonesian Cancer Foundation (YKI) Prof. DR.dr. Aru Wicaksono, every year no less than 15,000 cases of cervical cancer occur in Indonesia. The high cases of cervical cancer in Indonesia make WHO put Indonesia as a country with the number of patients with cervical cancer in the world. Based on the data above, it is therefore important to know what is cervical cancer, the cause and prevention. Here’s the discussion from us.
What Is Cervical Cancer?
The cervix or cervix is the lower portion of the female uterus (womb). Almost all cases of cervical cancer are caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). If detected earlier, the chances of recovery from HPV are very high.
What are the symptoms of Cervical Cancer?
In the early days of cervical cancer, usually not ditemkan signs and symptoms. As the cancer grows, symptoms may be abnormal bleeding from the vagina. Abnornamic bleeding is bleeding that occurs between the menstrual cycle, during intercourse and after menopause. Pain during intercourse and discharge from the vagina can also be a sign and symptom of cervical cancer.
What are the main causes of Cervical Cancer?
HPV is a major cause of cervical cancer, more than 90% of cervical cancers are caused by HPV infection. HPV is a virus that consists of many groups, about 40 types of groups can attack the human genital tract. Several types of HPV are known to cause cancer, while some cause genital warts (condyloma).
HPV causes cancer because HPV can cause changes from the cervical cells. These pre-cancerous changes can usually be found by screening. If left this pre-cancerous cells will turn into cancer cells.
What other causes of Cervical Cancer?
Hispanic and African-American race women have a higher risk of cervical cancer than white women.
Other factors that cause cervical cancer include:
- Long-term use of oral contraceptives (more than 5 years)
- Have many children
- Have a weak HIV or immune system
- Having multiple sexual partners
- Early sexual intercourse
How to detect Cervical Cancer early?
Pap smear examination has successfully prevented many cases of cervical cancer by finding abnormal cells before the cells turn into cancer cells. The cells of the vagina are removed by wiping (vaginal swab) and then examined by a microscope.
Women who have had sexual intercourse are advised to check every 3 years starting from the age of 21 years. In women aged 30 to 65 years the test daapt done every 5 years if done Pap smear test and HPV DNA testing. Despite vaccinations, screening with Pap smears should still be done because vaccination does not protect against all types of HPV.
What are the types of Cervical Cancer vaccine?
Vaccines are useful to prevent HPV viruses most often cause cancer.
There are two types of vaccines most commonly used:
- Cervarix injected at 3 times the first dose, second dose in second month and third dose in sixth month
- Gardasil, administered the same as Cervarix but Gardasil also protects against the two types of HPV that most often cause genital warts (condyloma).
Who should get HPV vaccine?
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends vaccines in women age 11 or 12 years. Women between the ages of 13 and 26 can also make the follow-up vaccine. Because HPV can infect males and cause throat and other cancers, men ages 11 to 21 are also recommended for HPV vaccine. To get the full benefit of the vaccine, vaccines should be given to people who have never had sexual intercourse.
What treatment can be done in patients with Cervical Cancer?
Therapy of Cervical Cancer depends on many factors, including the stage of cancer when first diagnosed. The most common methods are surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy and so on.
So many discussions about cervical cancer from us, hopefully help. If you feel helpful, you can share this article in order to reach and help more people. Thank you
who.int, cdc.gov, yayasankankerindonesia.org, medicinenet.com, singaporecancersociety.org.sg
By : dr. Divan Fernandes L