Burns can happen anywhere, especially with people who often deal with fire and other heat sources, such as chefs, welders, factory workers who use electric fire, electricians, and so on. In addition, many cases occur due to accidental, such as exposure to hot water and exposed to oil splashes during cooking, and the consequences of accidents such as fire due to burst gas cylinders, electric shorting, etc.
Before we enter various ways how to burn burns, there are things we do some of the following.
Cause of burn
Here are 4 causes of burns:
- Heat (temperature above 60 ° C), for example: fire, hot steam, hot objects
- Electricity, for example: household electricity, lightning
- Chemical, for example: caustic soda, water battery (zuur)
- Radiation, for example: sunlight (ultraviolet), radioactive material
Three classes of burns
Based on the depth, the burn is divided into 3 levels, namely:
1. First degree burn (Superficial)
This burn only covers the top layer of skin (epidermal layer). Usually this burn is characterized by redness, pain, and sometimes swelling.
2. Second degree burns (slightly deeper than first degree)
This burn includes the outermost layer of damaged skin and disrupts the undercoat. This level of burn is the most painful type, with marked bubbles on the skin containing fluid, swelling, reddish skin or may also be white, damp, and damaged skin.
3. Third degree burn
In this level of burns, the burned layers are infinite, even to the bones and internal organs. This burn is the most severe level. Unlike the degrees one and two, third degree burns are not painful because the nerves are usually damaged by this burn. Usually characterized by dry, pale or even white skin, but can also be charred and black.
Wide of burn surface
In the treatment of burns and the determination of the degree of burns, the surface area of the burned body is very important. Guidelines for estimating the area of burned areas can be done by the rule of nine, by dividing the body area by a percentage of nine per area of the body.
Here is the rule of nine:
- Head (9%): front = 4.5%; the back = 4.5%
- Body (36%): chest, abdomen = 18%; back = 18%
- Arm (18%): upper front arm (9%); forearm front arm (9%)
- Legs (36%): upper-back upper limbs (18%); lower front limb (18%)
- Genitalia (1%)
Another way to calculate the area of burns is to compare the wound and the victim’s palm. The victim’s palm is considered to have an area of 1% of the body surface area. Keep in mind that widescreen calculations are calculated on the basis of each degree of burn. The degree of burn is determined by two major factors, namely the surface area of the burned body and its location.
Mild burn injury
- Third degree burns are less than 2% wide, except on the face, hands, feet, genitals, and airways
- Second degree burns are less than 15% wide
- First degree burns are less than 50% wide
Moderate burn injury
- Third degree burns between 2% -10% area, except on the face, hands, feet, genitals, and airways
- Second degree burns between 15% -30% area
- First degree burns more than 50%
Heavy burn injury
- All burns accompanied by airway injury, soft tissue injury, and bone injury
- Second or third degree burns on the face, hands, feet, genitals, or airways
- Second degree burns above 10%
- Second degree burns more than 30%
- Burns accompanied by mobility injuries
- Burns surround the movements
How to handle burn injury?
- Flow regular water into the wounded area. If there are chemicals run the water continuously for 20 minutes or more.
- Remove the clothes and jewelry. If clothing is attached to burns, clothe the surrounding clothing that is not attached, and do not force to remove it.
- Cover burns, use a sterile wound cover and do not break the bubbles.
- Do not use butter, toothpaste, soy sauce, coffee, ice water.
- Refer immediately to the health facility.
Call emergency call if :
- The burn penetrates all layers of the skin.
- The skin is leathery or charred looking, with white, brown, or black patches.
- The hands, feet, face, or genitals are burned.
- The person is an infant or a senior.
Source : HelloSehat, WebMD