Do not underestimate bloody cough or haemoptysis. This condition can be a symptom of a life-threatening serious illness.
Blood that comes out when coughing is commonly mixed with phlegm. A bleeding cough in young people may not be a serious illness and can be treated immediately. However, this condition can be a dangerous indicator especially for the elderly and smokers.
Causes of Bloody Cough from Mild to Severe
The presence of blood in the sputum when coughing can generally be caused by severe cough in a long time. But there are many other conditions that can cause a bloody cough, namely:
- Bronchitis: long-term respiratory tract which causes sputum buildup. Bronchitis can be triggered by many causes, such as lung infections that have been experienced and inhaling pollution elements.
- Tuberculosis (TB): a severe lung infection with common symptoms such as fever, sweating, coughing with colored sponge or pus, and a sense of tightness in the chest. A bloody cough will subside as soon as the infection is healed.
- Pulmonary embolism: blood clots in blood vessels in the lungs that can cause shortness of breath and sudden chest pain.
- Lung edema: fluid accumulation around the lungs with symptoms of sputum released when cough is pink and frothy. This condition generally occurs in people who first experience heart disease.
- Lung cancer: this situation is more common in smokers older than 40 years.
Cancer of the throat.
- Cystic fibrosis: a genetic condition that causes disruption of the lungs and digestive system.
- Side effects of drugs, such as cocaine and blood-thinning drugs.
- Emphysema: disorders of the air sacs in the lungs.
- Abscess or festering wounds in the lungs.
- Parasitic infections.
- Objects that are inhaled or into the nose can also cause injury to the respiratory tract and cause a bleeding cough. These objects can be toys, nuts, beads, or anything else that can enter the nose.
- Inflammation and abnormal tissue buildup may affect the respiratory tract and cause a bleeding cough. Conditions that may cause the situation include Goodpasture syndrome, Wegener’s granulomatosis, lupus pneumonitis.
In very rare cases, a bloody cough can be a symptom:
- A heart valve disorder called mitral stenosis.
- An indication of a serious blood vessel disease called nodosa poliarteritis.
However, there are times when a bloody cough can not be categorized as hemoptysis if caused by the following conditions:
- Pseudohemotisis: bleeding in the mouth, nose or throat can cause blood discharge along with saliva. This case is different from the blood coming out of your lungs. Blood originating from the lungs often mixes with phlegm
- Hematemesis: the direction can also come out of the digestive tract in the form of vomiting. This can be a symptom of other diseases, such as gastric inflammation.
Bloody cough sufferers need further treatment as soon as possible. There are several specific conditions related to this. You need treatment by your doctor if you take more than a teaspoon of blood when you cough. In addition to cough, there is blood in the urine and stool. Watch your cough condition if accompanied by other symptoms, such as headache, chest pain, fever, shortness of breath. Do not ignore the condition yourself if to lose the appetite and lose weight because the two conditions can be an important indication. Finally, coughing out sputum mixed with blood lasting more than a week.
To determine the appropriate treatment, the doctor or hospital will apply some tests to determine the levels of bleeding, its causes, and its effects on breathing. Such tests may include:
- History and physical examination. The doctor will take phlegm samples to check for possible infection.
- The GP can refer the patient to a specialist or hospital for X-ray examination or CT scan. X-rays will detect the presence or absence of fluid and blockage in the lungs. While with the CT scan will obtain images of the structure of the lungs in more detail.
- Bronchoscopy. Performed by inserting an endoscope or a small tube with a camera at the end to the respiratory passage through the mouth or nose.
- Complete blood count (CBC). That is a blood test to calculate the levels of red and white blood cells in the blood, as well as cells that affect blood clotting.
- Urinalysis to detect abnormalities in the urine.
Several kinds of blood tests can be done to test hemoptysis. Blood will be taken to the laboratory to obtain a blood chemistry profile to detect possible electrolyte imbalances and impaired renal function. There are also tests to detect oxygen and carbon dioxide levels in the blood because oxygen levels in people with coughing blood are usually low.
Relieving Bloody Cough
Treatment of coughing blood is intended to stop the symptoms while handling the underlying cause of the condition, such as doing chemotherapy for lung cancer treatment. In addition, steroids may be administered for inflammation or antibiotics for the treatment of pneumonia or tuberculosis.
Do not let the problem cough becomes severe and do not heal in a long time. With the use of suitable and safe cough medicine, this commonly coughing can be prevented, even if a bloody cough has occurred, should be treated promptly to stop the symptoms while addressing the underlying cause of the condition.
Sometimes the cause of a bleeding cough can not be recognized specifically. This condition is called idiopathic hemoptysis. However, this condition should continue to be consulted if it continues to be handled immediately if it is a symptom of a disease at risk of life threatening.
source : alodokter.com